An analysis of leadership & management challenges facing school principals In circuit no.12 of the King William’s town district of the Eastern Cape Province.

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University of Fort Hare


Within the South African context, because of political and social changes and the influence caused by these changes on educational structures, the new and high demands are required from school principals. Principals now find it necessary to make choices and take decisions .Unfortunately they are not equipped sufficiently to make careful decisions in meeting constitutional demands (Niehaus & Myburgh, 1999). According to Evans (1997:20) (as cited by Schoeman, 2006) the establishment of suitable institutions is sufficient in keeping a free and democratic society, world events (fascism in Japan, Italy, Germany,1920s-1930s;cold war in Europe, 1940s-1980s are there to remind us that even the best –designed institutions are not sufficient. A free and democratic society is dependent on knowledge, skills and virtues of its citizens (IDASA 1999:2). Brown and Duku, 2008 contend that when SASA was introduced, it was of the idea that it would create a new school governance landscape (Naidoo, 2005). Criticisms are blaming the SASA for the tensions that exist in school governance. SASA is viewed as steeply middle- class in identity and is accused of normalising parental participation in school governance in middle-class terms. Another criticism is on the assumption that parents should have the resources and time to spend on school activities (Dyer &Rose, 2005; Fakir, 2003; Sayed & Soudien, 2005). When criticisms against this Act were taken stock of in the context of socio-economic realities of many communities in rural locations in SA, it is difficult to disagree. The report of the Ministerial Review Committee cited socio-economic related difficulties as paralysing how parents participate in school governance in rural communities (Ministerial Review Study, 2004).