Theses and Dissertations

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    Reconstruction and Development Programme in Post-apartheid South Africa : a study of public perceptions of the housing service delivery in Chris Hani Park Block 3 township, East London
    (University of Fort Hare, 2013) Cewuka, Thembakazi Gloriadaria
    This research sought to understand the perceptions of the township dwellers who are the beneficiaries of the RDP houses in a selected township, Chris Hani block 3 in Mdantsane, East London, in the Eastern Cape. The study specifically sought to establish whether the houses delivered to the residents through the Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) adequately meet the basic standards prescribed by the relevant housing policy of South Africa.During the apartheid era black South Africans were marginalised, their development was separate from that of whites and they had no say in what was provided for them, hence they were inadequately housed. On coming into power, the post-apartheid government undertook through legislation to provide sustainable, adequate housing that would address the needs of the historically disadvantaged citizens/poor people of South Africa.The main finding of this study conducted on a sample of ten RDP housing beneficiaries, through personal interviews is that, the RDP is a good programme; however, its implementation is characterised by corruption and greed. The people, whom the programme is meant to benefit, have never been involved in their own development with the results that the houses provided to them, are of a sub-standard quality. The houses do not adequately address the housing needs of the people. The housing policies are also not adequately implemented. It is the author’s hope that the recommendations made by this study, if implemented, will improve the standard of the RDP houses provided to the poor people of South Africa.
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    Men living with HIV and AIDS : a narrative study of males experiences of living with HIV and AIDS in municipality in the Eastern cape provice of South Africa
    (University of Fort Hare, 2014) Gumbie, Tendia Emmanuel
    According to UNAIDS (2012b) men continue to have a higher HIV and/or AIDS mortality rate compared with women. The aim of this thesis was to elicit, analyse and understand the “insider” accounts of the life experiences of men living with HIV and/or AIDS. Particular emphasis was placed on investigating whether there were similar themes, emotions and meanings expressed in the narratives of the participants, with regard to their sexual practices and experiences and how these practices and this chronic illness impacted on their masculinity construct.
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    Information communication technology access, usage and impact in primary school teaching and learning : the case of Nkonkobe area, Eastern Cape
    (University of Fort Hare, 2014) Chitha, Silas Mlulami
    This study examines ICT access, usage and impacts in primary school teaching and learning in Nkonkobe in the Eastern Cape Province. One of the major motivations for this study was that while the general advantages of ICT are well established and known, it however remains unclear whether South African schools, especially Eastern Cape primary schools have access to ICT hardware and software for teaching and learning. If they do have access to ICT, do they use it? For what? How frequent do they use it? Are teachers skilled enough to use this ICT in teaching and learning? Are learners benefiting from ICT usage? Against this background and questions, this research looks at whether selected urban, peri-urban, and rural primary schools in Nkonkobe Municipality have access to ICT. It also examines the role and impact of ICTs in primary school teaching and learning in Nkonkobe, Eastern Cape. The results of the study show that while urban and peri-urban primary have access to ICT, rural primary schools lack basic ICT hardware such as desktop computers and laptops. The urban and peri-urban primary schools are utilizing ICT in their daily teaching and school administration activities. Learners in urban primary schools also use ICT for their educational development. On the other hand rural primary schools are deprived of full ICT access and usage. Some of the rural schools only rely on television sets and cellphones for use in teaching and learning activities. Learners in rural primary schools are thus not benefiting much from ICT usage in teaching and learning. This ‘digital divide’ between urban, peri-urban and rural primary schools is one of the many policy gaps that are highlighted as a critical area that need to be addressed by the National and Provincial Education Departments.
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    Agrarian question in South Africa :an evaluation study of the land redistribution for agricultural development (LRAD) programme in selected areas of the Buffalo City
    (University of Fort Hare, 2010) Gedeza, Mahlubandile
    This study is based on the view that the ‘agrarian question of the dispossessed’ is not yet resolved in South Africa. Since the early ‘90s, the South African government embarked on a land reform programme that was meant to contribute towards the creation of a better life for the historically dispossessed individuals. Land was given to land reform beneficiaries as grants. However, according to suggestions made by non-governmental organizations, community-based groups and the media, the land reform programme has generally not had any impact and that farms/projects assisted have either collapsed or are not functioning to the levels expected. This is the main reason why the study is conducted: to examine factors that explain why the agrarian question is not yet resolved in South Africa. The purpose is to bring about corrective measures which would result in stopping the wastage of funds that could be better utilized elsewhere. This study is based on the view that the ‘agrarian question of the dispossessed’ is not yet resolved in South Africa. Since the early ‘90s, the South African government embarked on a land reform programme that was meant to contribute towards the creation of a better life for the historically dispossessed individuals. Land was given to land reform beneficiaries as grants. However, according to suggestions made by non-governmental organizations, community-based groups and the media, the land reform programme has generally not had any impact and that farms/projects assisted have either collapsed or are not functioning to the levels expected. This is the main reason why the study is conducted: to examine factors that explain why the agrarian question is not yet resolved in South Africa. The purpose is to bring about corrective measures which would result in stopping the wastage of funds that could be better utilized elsewhere. Qualitative methods were used to collect data using semi-structured interviews from land reform beneficiaries in nineteen farms/projects of the Amathole/ Buffalo City as well as from government officials who implement the programmes. The main findings reflect that the major failure of these projects is because the people who are responsible for implementing the programme lack the capacity to handle a programme of this magnitude. It was also found that there is a serious lack of an integrated approach to development in the planning and implementation of the programme. The study, therefore, recommends that a new structure be set up, that would be able to facilitate and co-ordinate the whole programme. For such a structure to succeed, it would have to have political authority and adopt land reform strategies that have worked in other countries that were previously faced with similar challenges.
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    Rural agriculture and youth empowerment: perspectives of the youth and community members in Centane, Eastern Cape, South Africa.
    (University of Fort Hare, 2014) Mkra, Zuzeka Prudence
    The study explores youth perspectives regarding their participation in agriculture and its future in Centane, a rural community in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The study examines, firstly, the extent to which the assumption that youth lack interest in agriculture is evident in the study community. Secondly, it explores the extent to which youth involvement or the lack thereof defines the future of agriculture in the study community. The third research concern is the extent to which the relevant state-led agricultural policies support youth involvement in rural agriculture. This is against the background that unemployment is rife in Africa, with extensive social and economic consequences, yet appears not to have been vigorously tackled by the government. There is also a scholarly view that rural youths “lack interest” in agriculture. The study used both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods, specifically a mini survey, focus groups, in-depth and key informant interviews, and observation. The key findings of the study showed that there was widespread lack of youth involvement in agriculture in the study community. However, contrary to what the literature on this theme often supposes, this was more as a result of the absence of specific ‘incentives’ and resources, than as a result of a “lack of interest” in agriculture. The study also found that despite the high level of acknowledgment in the study community that the youth were “turning away” from agriculture, and the researcher’s observation that arable fields in and around the community lay uncultivated, the overall youth perception of rural agriculture could not be described as negative. Another important finding was that key informants in the relevant government departments acknowledged that government was not providing sufficient support to spur youth involvement in agriculture. The study concludes from these findings that rural agriculture is seriously imperiled, but not irredeemably so.
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    HIV / AIDS and urban food insecurity : an examination of household coping and adaptation strategies in Spunzana and Mdantsane in East London.
    (University of Fort Hare, 2014) Beatrice Stella, Afitumukiza
    This study examines the coping and adaptation strategies employed by HIV and AIDS affected and infected households to address food insecurity in East London. The study found that households diversified their income portfolios to cope with the effects of HIV and AIDS household food insecurity. Livelihood diversification was accompanied by adaptation changes at household level that included buying cheap food from affordable stores, rationing food and adults skipping meals to ensure that they preserve some food for the children. Some households went as far as sending their children to live with relatives ( in most cases grandmothers) in the rural areas in order to ease the pressure on the household budget. The respondents stated that such children would be able to have food on a regular basis whilst the affected households in the urban area will be having few mouths to feed. Social networks were an important livelihood strategy with 17 out of 19 households reporting that they use this resource. It was difficult to calculate the value of social networks on household monthly incomes but the study noted that social networks played an important role in an environment where there were less or no government or civil society programmes to assist the affected households. Unemployment was high among the households studied but in those households where members had employment, such income made a difference in household food access. Government grants to the elderly and children were a significant source of income for food for the affected and afflicted households.
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    School feeding programmes in Chimutu, Malawi: Opportunities, benefits and challenges.
    (University of Fort Hare, 2013) Yasin, Janerose
    Developing countries have the highest dropout as well as non enrollment rates among primary school pupils. However there are efforts to reverse the situation through interventions like school feeding programme to improve schooling outcomes. The aim of this study was specifically to find out the details of why school participation is still a problem among primary school children despite provision of food in primary school. This was achieved through discussions on community members’ participation, benefits and challenges of the school feeding programme. Data collected from key informants and community members using in-depth interviews revealed the benefits and challenges as well as perceptions on community participation. Data was collected from 46 respondents of whom 14 were key informants from government and NGO implementers and 32 community members who are benefiting from the intervention in the area of Traditional Authority Chimutu in Lilongwe District, Malawi. The study found out that although school feeding programme is beneficial through provision of at least a meal a day, it is not meeting some of its objectives. In summary the findings revealed community members acknowledgement that the school feeding programme encourages school attendance and high pupil enrolment. However, the findings revealed that meal provision in school can neither prevent school dropout nor malnutrition due to challenges like inconsistency in feeding frequency, porridge purchase expenses and monitoring and evaluation inadequacies. It was also found that community participation in the school feeding programme does not go beyond porridge preparation. Overall, the study revealed the need for community members involvement at all levels in the feeding programme to achieve sustainable development because the community members are key in identifying and addressing their livelihood challenges.
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    Care dependency grants in a south African township: an assessment of access, challenges and contradictions in Bophelong, Gauteng.
    (2013) Dimhairo, Patrica;
    The condition of disability has been part and parcel of many societies, yet the attention given to the issue has been minimal. Most focus on social and economic intervention has been directed on the person living with disabilities and largely ignoring the role played by the caregivers who are involved in the day to day upkeep of the disabled. This has left the caregivers with challenges that remain largely unexplored. The care dependency grants that are offered by the government have been helpful but insufficient. Most families raising children living with disabilities are unemployed thereby shifting their financial dependency to the caregiver grant. This compromises the quality of life of the intended beneficiary. It is against this background that this study assesses factors affecting access to care dependency grant by children with disabilities, from the perspectives of the caregivers. Data were collected using a mini survey of 19 caregivers (of children with disabilities) in Bhopelong Township, in-depth interviews, an FGD and non-participant observation of how research participants navigated the challenges of caring for children with disabilities against the backdrop of deep poverty. The study found that some of the children with disabilities remained poverty stricken and without access to care dependency grant. The study further revealed that access to care dependency grant was impeded by factors such as lengthy application process, lack of awareness among some caregivers about the existence of care dependency grant, physical distance to the relevant offices of the Departments of Home Affairs and Social Development, which made it difficult for people to apply for relevant grants. There was the further problem of whole families depending for their survival on the little grant money that was specifically meant for the welfare of the child with disability. The study concludes from these findings that children with disabilities – and those caring for them - are disadvantaged in quite intricate ways and that only a more rigorous and socially sensitive design of care dependency grant can ameliorate such disadvantage.