Theses And Dissertations

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    Exploring the Rape Survivor's Experiences of the South African Criminal Justice System
    (University of Fort Hare, 2009) Daniel, Nyameka
    Until recently, little attention was paid to victims of crime and violence in South Africa. Moolman (1997) argued that within the framework of the Criminal Justice System (CJS) the victim is totally marginalized. Geis also maintains that the victim of crime experiences a number of problems with each subsystem of the CJS (Cited in Galaway and Hudson, 1981). They further argue that the CJS is mainly offender orientated and they also claim that previously within the South African CJS, the focus was primarily placed on the offender of the crime, with the victim viewed as a complainant and/or witness at best. Not surprisingly therefore, research has pointed out that victims of crime and violence are often victimized twice - first by the offender and second by the insensitive treatment meted out by members of the criminal justice system, the health care system and support services (Davis and Snyman: 2005). However, with the introduction of democracy in South Africa in 1994, and the inclusion of the Bill of Human Rights in the South African Constitution (Act' 108 of 1996), the rights of victims have finally been recognized and accentuated in terms of legislation.
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    The Psychological impact of imprisonment in South Africa : a case study in Nkonkobe municipality
    (University of Fort Hare, 2014) Sinefu, Akhona
    The study tries to explain the psychological effects of imprisonment as adjustment to incarceration is at all times a difficult matter and, it creates a tradition of thinking and behaviour which can be dysfunctional in times of post-prison adjustment. The psychological effect of confinement varies from individual to individual. Not everyone who is confined is psychological harmed by it, but a few people are completely unchanged by the experience. It can be argued that everyone who enters detention centre is subjected to pressures of institutionalization, and that inmates respond in various ways with different levels of psychological changes associated with their adaptations.
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    Psychological and social consequences of aggravated robberies on victims: Evidence from selected precincts in the Eastern Cape.
    (University of Fort Hare, 2015) Zondeka, Fikile Michael
    This study concerns the psychological and social consequences of aggravated robberies on victims, with the central aim as of understanding, from a victim’s perspective, the psychological and social impact of being violently robbed. In South Africa, there has been a steady increase in aggravated robberies which had psychological and social consequences on victims. The purpose of this study was to explore on how aggravated robbery disrupts victim’s core assumption of invulnerability, the ability to handle stress after the incident, as well as the kind of support systems employed to overcome the ordeal. The South African nation is struggling to manage with a very high rate of aggravated robberies – a phenomenon that has also increased worldwide. Some aggravated robberies are highly organized in nature (e.g. most cash-in-transit (CIT) and bank robberies, as well as truck and carjacking). This is particularly the case when organized criminals are involved. Other robberies are not as well organized as is the case with the majority of street robberies. The dramatic changes of this crime as highlighted, remains worryingly when figures increase in one sub-trend and decrease in another. It is worrying when street robbery decreases and house robbery increases as if the robbers have moved from the street to residential places. Research data was gathered by means of a structured questionnaire. Forty two (42) respondents (3%) out of 1410 victims covering all subcategories of aggravated robberies were interviewed. Respondents were selected utilizing the principle of purposive sampling to ensure representativity in terms of gender, age, race and marital status. The researcher had used his own judgement about which respondents to choose, and picked only those who best met the purposes of the study and further relied on his experience, ingenuity to deliberately obtain units of analysis in such a manner that the sample obtained had to be regarded as being representative of the relevant population. Three research sites viz. East London, Kwazakhele and Mthatha, were selected because of the highest recorded incidences of aggravated robberies. All participants reported some effects during and after the attacks. As a result of physical and emotional trauma, specifically where firearms or dangerous weapons were used to threaten the victims, the findings revealed that the impact of aggravated robberies on victims, accrued in psychological and social consequences followed by post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) which prolongs for a long time. Due to the financial losses, ninety eight percent (98%) of victims’ psychological distress appeared, and became very intense. Very few participants received any support and the overwhelming majority of the victims never received assistance or support from the Government during and after the robberies. The Government has not taken measures in preventing robbery cases or visiting crime scenes promptly. This study based on the findings, makes recommendations for ways in which victims of aggravated robberies can be assisted, where it proposed for support at the police stations and/or hospitals by means of availing psychologists, and work shopping police in addressing the perceived lack of service, regardless of the severity of the attacks.
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    An exploratory study on lifestyle and its contribution to personal victimization among students at University of Fort Hare in Alice campus.
    (University of Fort Hare, 2016) Vaphi, Yanga Yandisa
    This study is based on student lifestyle and its contribution to personal victimization at University of Fort Hare in Alice campus. Social Science researchers such as Fisher, Sloan, Cullen, and Lu (1998) claim that there are many incidents of criminal victimization occurring on and off university campuses. The main purpose of this study is to find out whether there is any correlation between student lifestyle and personal victimization. There are many theories, concepts and available information regarding the issue of personal victimization among students, however, this notion is thriving, especially in higher institutions. The study examined the research objectives through lenses of theories such as lifestyle exposure theory, routine activities theory, rational choice theory which serve to elaborate more about the research topic. In this study data was collected using interviews and self-administered questionnaires for triangulation purposes. Some of the findings in this study were that there is vast majority of students who suffer from personal victimization on and off-campus due to students’ different lifestyles and lack of legal responsibility by the institution. First year females were found to be the majority of students who suffer from personal victimization due to their vulnerability in their residences. Based on these findings, recommendations such as tightening security measures around campus, educating students regarding victimization, and collaboration of the university with police officials were made.
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    A comparative exploratory analysis of vigilante occurrences in two communities in Port Elizabeth (Kwazakhele and New Brighton).
    (University of Fort Hare, 2016) Loqani, Anelisa
    The study explores and compares the incidents of vigilantism in two selected communities in Port Elizabeth. However, the word ‘vigilantism’ as utilized in the study can be explained as the group of people in a community who take the law into their own hands and punish alleged societal offenders on the spot. Vigilante activities have become a regular occurrence in many communities in Port Elizabeth and in South Africa as whole. This phenomenon as reported by several authors has destroyed many young men’s lives and ambitions. This is a paradoxical situation that violates human rights because South Africa is a country with a Constitution that prioritizes human dignity for all, and citizens that are totally free from violence of any kind. The aim of the study is to explore, analyze and compare the incidents of vigilantism in New Brighton and Kwazakhele communities in Port Elizabeth. The intention is to educate and enlighten the members of the selected communities, together with the public about vigilantism and its impact on communities. The researcher achieved the aim of this study by asking the following questions: • What are the motives of individuals/communities who take the law into their own hands? • What impact do vigilante incidents have on communities? • Which effective preventative measures can be utilized to combat vigilantism? To answer these questions, questionnaires for data collection were utilized. The study was conducted using a total population of one hundred (100) participants who were divided by two. Each community had a sample of fifty (50) participants. The participants were selected by utilizing purposive sampling technique which is non-probability sampling. The participants were the community members of the selected communities. The researcher applied a qualitative research methodology in order to obtain in-depth information and utilized content thematic analysis and SPSS software for the analysis of the data gathered. Two theories a) Differential Association Theory and b) Social Learning Theory were employed to interpret the findings of the study. The results of the study demonstrate that there has been an escalation in vigilante activities in Port Elizabeth communities since 2000 and 2010. In many vigilante actions that occurred, males (ages between 18 and 30 years) were found to be the majority of the people who were more likely to be victims of vigilantism because of the crimes they commit. The results also demonstrate that an increase in vigilante incidents in New Brighton and Kwazakhele have been reported to be a result of the ineffectiveness of visible policing, easy bail conditions and frustration and anger of the community members, who do not see the criminals being arrested. These vigilante activities have been reported to have negative impact in these communities specifically on children. Based on this issue of vigilantism, several strategies that could assist to combat vigilante actions were made. The participants suggested that government should improve the criminal justice system as a whole in order to reduce vigilantism. The respondents also indicated that government should create jobs for the youths because other people become involved in criminal activities, because of poverty and lack of employment opportunities. Furthermore, the participants proposed that government should enact tough laws on offenders.